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Drivers of private-label purchase behavior across quality triers and product categories. The retail kaleidoscope of private labels with special reference to food products in Chennai. Raja, M. Private label line proliferation and private label tier pricing : a new dimension of competition between private labels and national brands. Consumer response to private label brands' negative publicity : a relational effect on retailer's store image.

Growth factors of store brands in different store formats in Italy. Geographical indications at the crossroads of trade, development, and culture : focus on Asia-Pacific. Calboli, Irene ed. Machine generated contents note: Part I. Geographical indications between trade, development, culture, and marketing: framing a fair er system of protection in the global economy? Irene Calboli; Premium store brand : product development collaboration between retailers and national brand manufacturers.

Consumer-based brand equity of a private-label brand : measuring and examining determinants. I nuovi equilibri competitivi tra le marche negli assortimenti commerciali. Impacts of product, store and retailer perceptions on consumers' relationship to terroir store brand. Influence of brand differential on motivation to conform and manufacturer versus store brand purchase intention. Tran, Ellie ; Balas, Ayse N. Relationships and characteristics that influence consumers' purchase decision between store brand and manufacturer brand product offerings have emerged as an interesting and practical area of research.

From a management perspective, understanding the process by which consumers make purchase Empirical models of manufacturer-retailer interaction : a review and agenda for future research. Ailawadi, Kusum L. What matters to store Brand Equity? An approach to Spanish large retailing in a downturn context.

In this context, our study aims to analyze which variables have a relevant Empirical studies of trade marks : the existing economic literature. A model of the destination management comes from the tourism policy of a destination. In South Bohemia, generally the operative marketing management of a destination prevails, with a focus only on a few tools of marketing communication.

These DMOs try to use a range of tools of destination management such as a strategic planning, close cooperation with enterprises etc. However, in general, the DMOs in South Bohemia still fulfill the role of a destination marketing organization. Conclusion In this part of the paper the most important issues from the research are summarized. In the next part a model is proposed based on the conclusions and findings of the research that should result in more efficient activities on the part of DMOs in South Bohemia.

The principal activity of DMOs in South Bohemia is still the marketing communication of a destination product. There is insufficient strategic planning of marketing activities and marketing communication instruments are used randomly and inefficiently. From the structure of most DMOs in South Bohemia there is the issue that the establishment of the DMOs is primarily initiated by public authorities municipalities, regional authority. From the conclusions presented above the proposal of a model for the role of a DMO in destination management was created.

The basic steps of a process are defined as follows: 1 Networking of stakeholders. It is necessary to create a functioning net of all stakeholders municipality, regional authority, enterprises, NGOs incl. Principals of real destination management are efficient and applicable especially at a local level. From that level the net of key stakeholders should be built. In the middle point the local DMO must stand as a main coordinator. The net of stakeholders in a tourism destination at the local level is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 — The net of stakeholders in a tourism destination at a local level Source: own processing 2 The role of a DMO in a destination management model. The most important activities for the tourism destination development were defined as cooperation and communication. These activities must be realized among all stakeholders for an efficient destination management, because the stakeholders are the basic building blocks of the whole process. The 3C activities cooperation, communication and coordination are represented in this model of destination management as pillars, on which the role of a DMO stands.

The role of a DMO in a destination management model is shown in Figure 3. Figure 3 — The role of a DMO in a destination management model Source: own processing Other activities of a DMO issue from the three pillars as a strategic destination management i. Based on strategic planning, the marketing management tactics of a destination will be realized.

In this phase an activation of all instruments of a destination marketing mix is essential. It means not only the marketing communication, but e. Literature [1] Bartl, H. Haupt UTB Verlag. Bern, Tourism Management. Annals of Tourism Research. Principles, Practices, Philosophies. Praha: Grada Publishing, ISBN [10] King. Journal of Vacation Marketing. Bratislava: Sprint dva, Regionale Erfolgsstrategien.

Erich Schmidt Verlag. Berlin, Journal of Travel Research. Hardiness appears as one aspect of the development of personal potential. Hardiness allows a person to tolerate a fatal anxiety accompanying the choice of the future uncertainty , but not the past constancy. The aim of the research was to test the linkage between hardiness and social-psychological adaptation, achievement motivation and life meaningful orientations of undergraduate students of psychology departments in Latvia.

Sample: participants. Age of participants: years. As diagnostic psychological tools were used a Hardiness Test of S. Maddi, adapted on the territory of Latvia by J. Shaplavska and I. Plotka ; test of Life Meaningful Orientations of D. Leontyev ; method of diagnosis of social- psychological adaptation of C. Rogers and R. Diamond; Achievement Motivation test of A. Mehrabian The obtained results showed statistically significant relationships. The correlations of hardiness and meaningfulness of life, life goals, social-psychological adaptation, and achievement motivation were found.

Conclusions and recommendations for teaching as well as for application in psychological practice are presented and discussed. Key words hardiness, commitment, challenge, control, achievement motivation, social-psychological adaptation, life meaningful orientations. Introduction According to D.

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Leontyev , personal potential is an integral characteristic of the personal maturity level, but the main phenomenon of personal maturity and a form of personal potential manifestation is the phenomenon of the personal self-determination. These adverse conditions can be defined by genetic characteristics, somatopathic diseases, but also can be defined by external adverse conditions. There are obviously unfavorable conditions for the personality formation, they may indeed fatally affect the development, but their influence can be overcome by the introduction of factors of extra dimensions in this system, primarily, by introduction of the self-determination on the basis of personal potential.

Phenomenology, reflecting different aspects of personal potential, in different approaches in foreign and Russian psychology was denoted by such concepts as will, strength, ego, internal support, locus of control, focus on the action, the will to meaning, etc. The most complete, in terms of D. Leontyev, this concept corresponds to such notion in foreign psychology as "hardiness" - "vitality", introduced by S. In terms of S. Maddi and D. Khoshaba Maddi S. According to S. Maddi, the first characteristic of "hardy" attitudes is a commitment - an important characteristic in regard to a self and the world and to the nature of the interaction between them, which gives strength and motivates a person to fulfillment, leadership, healthy pattern of thoughts and behavior.

The second "hardy" attitude is a control, or a tendency to think and behave as if there is a real opportunity to influence on the course of events, it is the quality that motivates the search for ways to influence on the outcomes of stressful changes, as a counterbalance to falling into the state of helplessness and passivity. Regulatee is acting, feeling able to prevail over the circumstances and withstand heavy moments of life.

Cognitively appreciating even tragic events such people reduce their value and thus reduce the traumatic effect. The generalized position of the subject of integral life determines his perception of any stressful event as not a blow of fate, the impact of uncontrollable forces, but as a natural phenomenon, as a result of the actions of others. The subject is sure that any difficult situation can be transformed so that it would be consistent with his life plans, will be somewhat helpful to him. The third "hardy" attitude, designated as a "challenge", helps a person to remain open to the environment and society.

To summarize, we can say that the "hardiness" is a special pattern of attitudes and skills which allow to turn the changes into opportunities. In foreign literature results of several researches, such as LaGreca , Solcava, I. They consider hardiness in connection with stress overcoming problems, adjustment - maladjustment within society, physical, psychical and social health.

A large number of researchers consider "hardiness" in connection with the problems of coping and adaptation-maladaptation in society, physical, mental and social health. Introduced by Kobasa , hardiness has emerged as a positive mediating variable in the field of stress research. Later, Kobasa et al found that hardiness protects against stress in two ways: by altering perceptions of stress and by mobilizing effective coping strategies. When high hardiness exists, difficult life events are transformed into opportunities for increased meaning in life Schwab, Hardy individuals have been found to be active, goal-oriented people approaching life with interest and excitement Rowe, , seeing themselves not as victims, but as active determinants of the consequences of change Kobasa, In the researches Florian V.

Researches Williams P. Sharpley Ch. Researches Solcova I. Leontyev and colleagues have conducted a study of the connection between hardiness and experience of the situation of uncertainty and anxiety. The study results have showed that among the respondents the risk acceptance is significantly higher then among those of the control group, and — according to the tendency — the whole hardiness measure is higher. Leontyev has made a conclusion that people, who often deal with existential problems and keep interest to them, have higher readiness to act in the conditions of uncertain outcome, anxiety and difficulties.

They have more confidence that everything happening is useful because it gives them experience Osin, Under the lead of D. Leontyev they have conducted the study of choice mechanism among the key variables of which the hardiness has been studied. The results showed that in the group having chosen uncertainty the level of general hardiness was significantly higher than in other groups. The same may be said on different levels of validity about separate components of hardiness — commitment, control and challenge. In other studies of D.

Leontyev they have exposed a negative correlative connection between hardiness and avoidance and social support search Leontyev, Raskazova, In the studies of E. Shaplavskaya, I. Plotka a, b, c, a of the connection between hardiness and coping behavior among students it was found the negative correlative connection between hardiness and avoidance. Furthermore, the same results were received while examining the servicemen of Latvian land forces in In a study J. Plotka, b, c, d aimed to examine the association of the components of hardiness and the scales of Questionnaire of Tolerance to Ambiguity Situations and strategies of coping behavior among members of rescue team, it was found that participants prefer to use such behavior strategies as aggressive action and strategy of avoidance.

It was also found that participants more prone to novelty, to the perception of unfamiliar situations as desirable; it means the preference of choice for a future in which there is always uncertainty. It cannot be predicted, even if one is planning something. It is a risk that is associated with any human action and to remove it rather difficult, but the choice of the future creates a certain potential and perspective for personal development.

The choice of the past, means withdrawal of awareness, attempt to preserve oneself, which cannot lead to success. Maddi himself considers the phenomenon, introduced by him, much wider, including it in the context of social ecology. And, most importantly, it is the factor, the internal resource that is subservient to human himself, it is what he can change and re-think, what contributes to the maintenance of physical, mental and social health, an attitude, which gives life value and meaning in all circumstances.

The mechanisms of psychic self-regulation and mental adaptation are switched on. People who prefer constructive reformative strategies turned out to be individuals with an optimistic outlook, stable positive self-esteem, and realistic approach to life and strongly expressed achieve motivation. People, who avoid the difficult situations, resort to psychological defense mechanisms, tend to "marching down social comparison," perceive the world as a source of dangers, they have low self-esteem, and their outlook is colored by pessimism Antsyferova, L.

So, in the center of attention are not only life problems, stress, crises and conflicts, but also the psychological reserves and personal potential, which are helping people to successfully overcome them. Hardiness is a kind of integrative psychological feature of personality, which includes the ability to take the challenge of destiny, and inner internal locus of control with the adoption of responsibility for current events, and focus, determination of action involvement in occurring events.

Aim of the study The aim of this study was to test the connection of hardiness and social psychological adaptation, achievement motivation, and life meaningful orientation of undergraduates of psychological faculties in Latvia. Participants The sample was participants. The age of participants was from 21 till Shaplavskaya and I. Results and dicsussion As a result of an empirical study which purpose was to find relationships between the severity of the components of hardiness with the scales of the questionnaire of life meaningful orientations, motivation of achievement and social-psychological adaptation of the students, the following results were obtained: 1.

The study showed that among the students it is observed correlation of hardiness with all scales of the test of life meaningful orientations, i. All correlations are positive. Thus, the students - participants of the study - have a goal or goals in life, perceive the process of life as interesting, emotionally rich and full of meaning, feel how productive and meaningful is their life, have an idea of self as a strong personality, have a belief that people are given control over their lives, to make decisions freely and to implement them.

As a whole, students with the formed system of life meaningful orientations have high hardiness. The results showed the correlation between hardiness and motivation to achieve in the group of participating students. It was found that with an increase of indicators of hardiness, the level of achievement motivation increases. This means that students can clearly monitor the results of their activity.

They have faith in their ability to cope with certain activities and have an idea of personal responsibility for their successes and failures. The students motivated by the success, while setting a goal, take into account the possibility of success as higher than the possibility of failure. The need for success - this need is satisfied not by proclaiming the success of a man, but by the process of bringing the work to completion.

People with developed need for success like the situations in which they can take responsibility for finding a solution to the problem, and that their achievements should be encouraged. But people motivated to fail in the first place think that they will not be able to achieve this goal. Hekhauzen H. Bandura A. In contrast, those who believe in their ability to solve the problem will be persistent in achieving goals despite obstacles. Bandura believes that those who have awareness of high self-efficacy, mentally imagine a good script, providing a positive drive to achieve the goal Modern psychology of motivation, The study found a correlation between hardiness and of social-psychological adaptation of the students participated in the research.

This explains the fact of influence of pronouncedness of hardiness on the process of active adaptation of the individual to environmental conditions. The higher the hardiness is, the process of adaptation for the individual goes without much difficulties and obstacles. According to E. Zavialova , social-psychological adaptation is the process of organizing social interaction and contributes to the fullest realization of personal potential, which is an aggregate of personal resources and level of self-discovery, providing a process of self-regulation and self-realization in the changed conditions of existence.

According to T. Shibutani, each personality is characterized by a combination of tricks to cope with difficulties, and these techniques can be considered as a form of adaptation refers to the more stable solutions - well-organized way to deal with typical problems. This confirms that high level of hardiness promotes greater adaptation to changing social environment and is a means to successful adaptation. And as A. Maklakov said, the greater the adaptive capacity, the greater the likelihood that the human body maintain a normal working capacity and high performance under the influence of psychogenic factors of the external environment.

Most students participated in the study showed high level of pronouncedness of components of hardiness commitment, control, challenge , so the students tend to develop, drawing knowledge from their experience. They are convinced that everything that happens to them promotes their development and are prepared to act in the absence of guarantees for success at their own risk. Students have a desire to influence the outcome of an event, choose their own activities, their own way. They enjoy their own activities, feel confident.

In the practice of social psycho-diagnostics hardiness can be used as an integral characteristic of the personality, replacing diagnosis of individual or local components. In the practice of a social psychologist, in a professional orientation, by determining the level of hardiness it can be forecasted the professional fit and social success in those areas where there is social tension, risk, extreme or semi-extreme situations.

Based on the empirical data, we can recommend to psychologists, in order to improve the hardiness in psycho-correction and developmental work with students, to work with meanings teach to prioritize, set goals, to feel the master of life , to form attitude toward themselves, to master the styles of self-regulation. Literature Bandura, A. Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44, Florian V. LaGreca The Psychosocial factors in surviving stress. Special Issue: Survivorship: The other side of death and dying. Khoshaba D. Kobasa S.

Hardiness and. Maddi S. Maddi, S. Forming of purport in the decision-making process. Psychological magazine, book 26, No 6, pp. Rowe, M. Teaching heath-care providers coping: Results of a two-year study. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22 5 , Scheier M. Dispositional optimism and physical well being: The influence of generalized outcome expectancies on health. Solcava I. Solcova I. Williams P. Research of hardship in relation to stress coping agenda. Jelgava, Latvija. Shaplavska, J. Adaptation of Russian and Latvian versions of hardiness test by S.

Vacere Red. Identifying the personality of a soldier in the science of psychology — a step forward the future. Scientific articles of the th International Applied Military Psychology symposium. Latvia, Riga, June , lpp. ISBN 4. Studying components of hardiness, tolerance to ambiguity and coping strategies of stress situations among the members of life-rescue teams. ISSN in press www. Hardiness and personal choice. In Scientific Articles and Conference Proceedings.

Theory for Practice in the Education of Contemporary Society. ISBN Profesines studijos: teorija ir praktika, 5 , Siauliai: Siauliu kolegija, Lithuania. ISSN The investigation of correlation between hardiness, its components and coping behavior strategies among students.

Partyckiego Ed. Proceedings of Xth international scientific conference. Lublin, Poland, May , pp. Lublin: KUL. ISBN: 2. Professional Studies: Theory and Practice, 7 , pp. Siauliai: Siauliai College. ISSN www. The aim of the research was to study the attitude towards the adjoining ethnos of students of social sciences departments. The age median of participants is 23 years.

Implicit attitudes were measured by implicit measurements based on paradigm of affective priming. The obtained data showed some statistically significant relatinships. The results of implicit and explicit measurements show the partial coincidence of data. The created research scheme allows to reveal new data significant for deeper understanding of relationship between two large ethnos living in Latvia.

Keywords ethnic attitude, ethnicity, implicit measurements, explicit measurements, ethnic identity, ethnic tolerance. Trying to understand and analyze people for their personal values and cultural diversity will help to mobilize and construct a caring society. Education in multicultural environment is an opportunity to improve interethnic relations and to help all students gain the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to take part in cross- cultural interactions. The tendency of growth of the number of foreign students exists. Literature survey The demographic build-up of European societies changed dramatically in the previous century.

The population increase in many European countries is caused by immigration. Attitudes are widely studied within social psychology. Among them three main models can be distinguished. The most popular three- component model so-called ABC model of attitudes considers them to consist of cognitive, affective and behavioral behavioral intensions components Eagly, Chaiken, Two-component model considers attitudes as comprising affective and cognitive components, which in turns affect behavioral intentions Levin, Levin, So, there is no consensus about the structure of an attitude within social psychology.

As in present study we deal with ethnic attitudes that representatives of majority group have towards minority group and vice versa, it seems quite reasonable to stick to the most widespread definition of an attitude as a tendency which is expressed by evaluating a particular object with some degree of favor or disfavor Eagly, Chaiken, The attitudes towards own and other ethnic groups are considered to be the result of a social categorization process Tajfel, In ethnic attitudes the relation towards the own ethnic community is expressed.

In the studies of ethnic attitudes conducting on the territory of Baltic States the main attention was focused on the relations of majority ethnic group and Russian-speaking minority and on the process of building and change of social and ethnic identity of minority group. These studies and obtained results are of the prior importance in Latvia and Estonia, because as a result of political and social changes, taken place during the last century in these and other former Soviet bloc countries, Russian-speaking minority composes the substantial part of population, and expresses the traits specific for majority group.

One of the key concepts of these researches is the concept of ethnic identity. Such consideration of identity makes possible to understand the other qualities of identity, for instance, how are the ascribed identity and acquired identity formed in the process of socialisation of personality in the context of definite environment and historical situation. In researches devoted to the social adaptation in different cultural environment and ethnic identity of young people the connection between social adjustment — maladjustment and ethnic identity was in the focus of attention Plotka, Vidnere, Blumenau, Strode, Results of the study provide information for an adequate choice of integration methods in different cultures.

The analysis of researches of ethnic tolerance in Baltic States allows to conclude that, on the one hand, in connection with the emergence of the problem of formation a new economic framework for interaction between different ethnic groups living in Latvia, there emerge a qualitatively new situation for the formation of tolerant ethnic relations. It can be concluded that personal level of ethnic relations in Latvia has a higher degree of tolerance than intergroup level Plotka, Blumenau, Vidnere, On the other hand, based on the researches of ethnic aspects of social integration and the impact of economic factors on these processes, it can be concluded that to date the integration of society in the context of economic processes has advanced far ahead compared to the early 90s.

As can be seen, the majority of researches of ethnic attitudes traditionally are conducted with the help of explicit measurements. Ethnic attitudes and relationships present challenges for researches because of presence of self-presentation motives, high level of social desirability which mean that participants would not honestly report true attitudes they have. In the European and American social psychological researches implicit measures are widely applied for the assessment of such constructs of social cognition, as persuasions, in-group favoritism, self-esteem, attitudes, stereotypes, racial attitudes, etc.

But the domain of ethnic attitudes seems to be less studied, than, for example, racial attitudes. The application of implicit measurements in researches of ethnic attitudes has been started in Latvia in Plotka, Igonin, Blumenau,a,b. As an implicit measure the experimental procedure based on the paradigm of unconscious emotional priming was applied.

To date four series of experiments have been conducted. This measurement is used along with explicit self-evaluative. The results contribute into understanding of the nature of attitudes, their functions and the nature of social cognition in whole. Aim of the study The aim of the present study was to exposure ethnic attitudes of Latvian and Russian students, using the explicit and implicit research methods, and to analyze the correspondents of ethnic attitudes, detected by these measures. Participants students of social sciences departments of Latvian HEIs Russians and 74 Latvian with normal state of health voluntary participated in the experiment.

Materials and methods 1. One indicator of the transformation of ethnic identity - is the growth of ethnic intolerance. The degree of ethnic tolerance of a respondent estimated based on the following criteria: the level of "negativity" in relation to their own and other ethnic groups, the threshold of emotional response to alien ethnic environment, the severity of aggressive and hostile reactions in relation to other groups.

The questionnaire contains six scales, which correspond to the following types of ethnic identity: 1. Ethnic indifference is the erosion of ethnic identity, which is expressed in the uncertainty of ethnicity, irrelevance of ethnicity. In multi-ethnic society a positive ethnic identity is a norm and inherent to the vast majority. It gives an optimum balance of tolerance towards one's own and other ethnic groups, which allows to view it, on the one hand, as a condition of self-sufficiency and stable existence of ethnic groups, on the other hand, as a condition of peaceful cross-cultural interaction in a multi-ethnic world.

Strengthening the destructiveness of inter-ethnic relations is caused by the transformations of ethnic identity to the type of hyper identity, which corresponds to the following three scales of the questionnaire: 4. Ethnic egoism, Ethnic isolationism, Ethnic fanaticism are the stages of amplification of ethnic identity, expressed in the emergence of discriminatory forms of inter-ethnic relations. In the inter-ethnic interaction hyper identity manifested in various forms of ethnic intolerance from irritation in response to the presence of members of other ethnic groups, to upholding the policy of restricting their rights and opportunities, aggressive and violent actions against other groups, and even genocide Soldatova, Stimulus material of questionnaire consists of statements which reflect both the general attitude toward the world and other people, and attitudes in different spheres of interaction where tolerance and intolerance of an individual can become apparent.

List of figures

Special attention is paid to ethnic tolerance - intolerance the relation to people of different races and ethnic groups, to own ethnic group, cultural distance score. Three subscales of questionnaire designed to diagnose such aspects of tolerance, as ethnic tolerance, social tolerance, and tolerance as a trait of personality. In - 's. Implicit Measurement Implicit attitudes were measured by implicit measurements based on paradigm of affective masked priming.

Table of contents

The experimental scheme of implicit measurement includes the procedure of affective masked priming on nine intervals of stimulus onset asynchronies which allows assessing the changes of implicit attitudes in the frameworks of automatic and controlled reactions. In this procedure target stimuli positively or negatively accented words are preceded by unseen prime-stimuli in this case — names of ethnic groups.

The stimuli were presented in the following sequence: Fixation point — msec. The tasks of lexical classification were given to the participants. Results 1. Results of Explicit Measurements Tab. The results are presented in the Table. Results of Implicit Measurements According to the basic assumption of the affective priming, if valences of prime-stimuli and target stimuli coincide, it is facilitate the fulfillment of the task. It is assumed that the participant has the formed positive or negative attitude to the ethnic group under investigation and to the own ethnic group.

The reaction time RT of the participant was fixed, so, positive or negative attitudes manifest themselves in the different reaction times of the respondents. Negative reaction time shifts correspond to positive attitudes, positive shifts correspond to negative attitudes. Frequency analysis by Pearson Chi-Square and Fisher transformation for the attitudes, defined by reaction time shift was conducted: the percent ratios of respondents with positive and negative attitudes were compared.

Discussion and Conclusions 1. Notwithstanding that the Ethnic Fanaticism is regarded as one of the extreme forms of ethnic identity hyper identity given classification is still an abstraction, which was formulated based on the great amount of empirical material. The real content and status of particular type of ethnic identity cannot be defined based only on one trait or characteristic. In combination with other characteristics it can compose transitional types of identity.

The concept of ethnic identity is of great importance for Latvians. This result, on the one hand, is in line with one of the most consistent findings in the field of interethnic relationships — liberalizing effect of education — higher educated individuals turned out to be less prejudiced than lower educated individuals. Shuman et al. The educational effect remains strong after controlling for other individual characteristics, such as social class, age, etc. On the other hand, ethnic relationships are an area of presence of self-presentations and social desirability motives.

As has been mentioned above, the participants are not always inclined to show their real attitude. The interpretation of obtained results is dependent of how we understand the nature of attitude, but nevertheless, it requires additional investigations. Positive Ethnic Identity positively correlates with Ethnic Tolerance and negatively linked with hyper identity.

Positive ethnic identity is considered as a norm, so, it gives an optimum balance of tolerance towards one's own and other ethnic groups, which allows to view it, on the one hand, as a condition of self-sufficiency and stable existence of ethnic groups, on the other hand, as a condition of peaceful cross-cultural interaction in a multi-ethnic world. Ethnic Tolerance is negatively linked with hyper identity. Application of implicit measurement in social psychological researches gives more information for understanding the nature, structure and functioning of attitudes.

The results of implicit measurements help to make deeper analysis of information concerns different social constructs, it can be also useful in prediction non-declared behaviors in the areas of high level social desirability, such as inter-ethnic relations, voting, and realization of social programs. Literature Ajzen, I. All the elements that infringe on profits costs, sales, budgeting, investment, and loan default are examined within this framework. In addition to synthesizing the research, Professor Metcalfe has applied his own research work on forecast modeling and judgmental methods.

The final result is a practical reference book for making more accurate profit forecasts. This volume is concerned with quality of life, and focuses on subjective well-being people's own evaluations of their lives in terms of happiness and satisfaction. The first section focuses on theories of subjective well-being, and on testing these theories.

The second section of the volume concentrates on how work, unemployment, and income influence subjective well-being.


  1. 1. Introduction.
  2. Inhaltsverzeichnis.
  3. Zusammenfassung.
  4. The Stratton Memorial Garden The creation of a burial ground in Princes Risborough?
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The third section of the book concerns two important institutions that have an impact on people's well-being - the health care and political systems. Authors from diverse disciplines present their views and research concerning quality of life, and focus on subjective well-being people's happiness and satisfaction. The chapters cover topics ranging from theories of happiness, and data bearing on these theories, to the organization of the political system. Income, work, health care, and leisure are considered as they influence well-being.

The effects of temperament, people's values and goals, and life events are also treated. There is an international flavor to the volume, with authors from several nations and data gathered from diverse societies. The findings of the volume are relevant to academic researchers as well as to those working in applied areas who want to improve quality of life. Dienstleistungsnetzwerke By M. Diese Fallstudien stellen die international erfolgreichsten Benchmarks vor. As the markets in transitional economies open and grow, major challenges and opportunities arise for multinational firms entering these markets, local firms facing these new competitors, and policymakers seeking to increase the ability of all firms to compete fairly and efficiently.

Yet despite the important questions transition economies pose for policymakers and companies seeking to enter and compete in these new markets, there has been a relative absence of systematic research on these concerns. This book seeks to fill a gap in the existing literature by offering a pioneering and comprehensive examination of issues that have developed as markets in transitional economies become more deregulated and open.

The topics covered are divided into five main sections, and the individual chapters are written by some of the world's leading academic experts on these issues. After an opening section which discusses the marketing issues and challenges multinational and local firms face in transitional economies, the next three sections offer detailed treatments of changing consumer behavior, measuring and improving the marketing orientation of firms, and implementing and managing distribution channels.

The fifth and final section is devoted to firm strategies and tactics, examined variously from the perspective of multinational firms entering these new markets, from the viewpoint of existing local firms facing new competitive challenges from global entrants, and from the perspective of local firms seeking to establish themselves in foreign markets where they have not previously competed. Most of the individual chapters are revised versions of papers originally presented at a conference sponsored by the William Davidson Institute, which focuses on research related to emerging and transitional economies, and have not previously appeared in published form.

Thus, the book is a unique collection of cutting-edge scholarship on the various aspects of marketing in transitional economies. It will prove valuable reading to academics, policymakers, and international business strategists. This volume is a milestone toward developing a more comprehensive understanding of corporate financial performance. The authors review both the factors that cause the financial performance of some firms to be better than others at a point in time and also those factors that influence the trajectory of firm financial performance over time.

In addressing these issues, the book considers theoretical and empirical work on financial performance, drawn from several literatures, as well as presenting empirical results. The goals of the book are to improve the understanding of firm financial performance by developing a more integrated framework and to develop a research agenda based on what is learned from this research. Coauthored by two of today's leading authorities on this hot new field, The Social Commerce Handbook distills the real-world experience of successful social commerce businesses--from Apple to Zappos--into 20secrets for turning "Likes" into "Buys".

The power of social utilityThe appeal of social giftingThe importance of social curationThe role of social statusThe value of social intelligence. Customer Relationship Management By J? Business Marketing By Kristian K. This book provides an in-depth understanding of long term business relationships in industrial markets. During the late s our view on business marketing changed remarkably: from a single transaction oriented, market mechanism-based description of marketing and purchasing we are moving into domestic and international buyer--seller relationships.

In academic terms, we are experiencing a broadening of the paradigms that describe how companies interact. Business Marketing: An Interaction and Network Perspective provides an in-depth understanding of the long-term relations in business marketing, how these relationships develop, and their constituent parts and processes. Unfolding network theory is presented and applied to the description of how complex interdependencies between modern firms in international markets can be analyzed with the help of network concepts. Business Marketing: An Interaction and Network Perspective is suitable for graduate and doctoral level courses in business administration.

The book will also be of interest to researchers and teachers working on business marketing, international marketing, and strategic management. Managers dealing with business marketing problems will also benefit from the insights provided by the interaction and network approaches. Erfolgreiches Investitionsg? Nach vielen erfolgreichen Jahren bewegt sich die Wirtschaft nun in einer schwierigen Situation.

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Nun zeigt sich, welche Anbieter erfolgreiche Marketingarbeit geleistet haben und wer dies noch nachzuholen hat. Das Buch zeigt, wie man die Marketing- und Vertriebsarbeit systematisch und erfolgreich anpackt und umsetzt. Inzwischen ist klar geworden, dass ein harter Verteilungskampf tobt. Dieses Buch zeigt, mit welchen Strategien man sich in diesem Haifischbecken bewegen kann. Eine Reihe praktischer Beispiele stellen einfache aber wirkungsvolle Taktiken vor. Wie kann eine individuelle Ansprache des Kunden erreicht werden?

Wie nutzt man neue Technologien, um ein genaueres Bild vom Kunden zu gewinnen? Qualifizierte Fachleute aus der Praxis und Wissenschaftler des Weiterbildungsstudiums Technischer Vertrieb diskutierten die Konzepte und erprobten die Beispiele. In diesem Buch geben sie ihre Erfahrungen wieder. Die zweite Auflage wurde aktualisiert und korrigiert. Erprobte Vorgehensweisen erfolgreicher Unternehmen, Checklisten, Praxistipps sowie Fallbeispiele aus den verschiedensten Branchen erleichtern Einstieg und praktische Umsetzung. In this text for courses in sustainable marketing and business, Peterson marketing, University of Wyoming explains how businesses can benefit by taking a more holistic approach to the marketplace.

His advice on how to achieve profits while operating with a social conscience will be of interest to those in business, as well as students and teachers. The theme of entrepreneurship is woven throughout the text. The first part of the book presents macromarketing as a framework for understanding sustainable enterprise. Part 2 examines factors contributing to market dynamism, such as empowered consumers and globalization.

Later sections cover enterprise with the environment and equity in mind. The final section looks at the future of market-based sustainability. A supporting website includes an actual business plan not merely a checklist from a real entrepreneur. Other learning features in the text include chapter-opening vignettes, chapter-ending questions, and boxes on historical and modern-day mavericks who made it.

Having a social media measurement plan and approach can no longer be an after-thought. It is a requirement of success. As nonprofits refine their social media practice, their boards are expecting reports showing results. As funders provide dollars to support programs that include social media, they too want to see results. This book offers the tools and strategies needed for nonprofits that need reliable and measurable data from their social media efforts.

Using these tools will not only improve a nonprofit's decision making process but will produce results-driven metrics for staff and stakeholders. A hands-on resource for nonprofit professionals who must be able to accurately measure the results of their social media ventures. Filled with tools, strategies, and illustrative examples that are highly accessible for nonprofit professionals. This important resource will give savvy nonprofit professionals the information needed to produce measurable results for their social media" Branding is considered to be the province of big business.

Branding is thought to be a logo, a color, a font, or a type of advertising. None of these things is true. As in many other sectors, in agribusiness major changes are taking place. On the demand side, consumers are changing lifestyles, eating and shopping habits, and increasingly are demanding more accommodation of these needs in the supermarket. With regard to the supply: the traditional distribution channel dominators - manufacturers of branded consumer products - are trying hard to defend their positions against retailers, who gather and use information about the consumer to streamline their enterprises and strengthen their ties with the consumer.

The agricultural producers, meanwhile, face increased regulations with regard to food additives, pesticides, and herbicides. Pressures rise as their business becomes more specialized and capital-intensive than that of their predecessors. Finally, the larger political climate is not so favorable to agriculture, which now has to compete in the global market without significant government support.

This title describes and interprets changes in the domain of agriculture and food. The contributors develop the theme of taking an interdisciplinary approach to coping with these changes, using concepts and methods developed in general marketing, which are adapted so as to apply to the particular characteristics of the food and agriculture sector. This book is published to honor the distinguished career of Professor Mathew T.

Meulenberg from Wageningen Agricultural University, on the occasion of his retirement in September As a scientist, teacher, and advisor to the agribusiness and the government, Professor Meulenberg has made an important contribution to the development of marketing, inside and outside the domain of agriculture. Consumer Neuroscience By Klaus W. Consumer Neuroscience, ein wirtschafts- und verhaltenswissenschaftlich orientierter Bereich der Neurowissenschaften, ist seit Jahren ein Topthema im Marketing.

Klaus W. Die Reifegrade erfolgskritischer Prozesse werden ebenso betrachtet wie spieltheoretische Aspekte der Auktion im Distributionsmodell. Doch auch er bleibt von der "digitalen Revolution" mit all ihren Herausforderungen nicht verschont. Quo vadis, Vertrieb? Das Buch ist in drei Kapitel gegliedert. Beantwortet werden Fragen zu klassischen Vertriebsthemen, aber auch Themen wie "Frauen im Vertrieb" und "Burnout im Vertrieb" kommen dabei zur Sprache.

Experten skizzieren nicht nur die Herausforderungen, denen sich der Vertrieb von heute stellen muss, sondern nennen auch die Chancen, die darin liegen. Das Buch richtet sich an Top-Entscheider, die ihr Unternehmen markt- bzw. Zudem liefert das Buch auch allen, die sich auf eine derartige Verantwortung vorbereiten, praxisrelevante Basis- und Vertiefungsinformationen.

How to Define Your Corporate Identity

Auch notwendige Nacharbeit, Evaluation und ethische Fragen werden behandelt. In this groundbreaking book, body language guru Mark Bowden teams up with renowned sales trainer Andrew Ford to reveal nonverbal communication skills guaranteed to give you the advantage in every sales situation. Diskutiert wurde u. Der HerausgeberProf. Carsten Baumgarth und Prof. The power of glitzy advertising and elaborate marketing campaigns is on the wane; word- of-mouth referrals are what drive business today. People trust the recommendation of a friend, family member, colleague, or even stranger with similar tastes over anything thrust at them by a faceless company.

Most business owners believe that whether customers refer them is entirely out of their hands. But science shows that people can't help recommending products and services to their friends-it's an instinct wired deep in the brain. And smart businesses can tap into that hardwired desire. Marketing expert John Jantsch offers practical techniques for harnessing the power of referrals to ensure a steady flow of new customers.

Keep those customers happy, and they willrefer your business to even more customers. Some of Jantsch's strategies include: a Talk with your customers, not at them. Thanks to social networking sites, companies of any size have the opportunity to engage with their customers on their home turf asnever before-but the key is listening. Salespeople are the company's main link to customers, who are the main source of referrals.

Getting them on board with your referral strategy is critical. If you think your industry is competitive, you wouldn't believe the selling skills necessary to assemble a championship football team! In the world of college football, the effort to attract talented players is known as "recruiting," but it's not like the human resources recruiting you see in a typical company.

Marketing und Brand Management

College football recruiting is marketing in its purest and most competitive form. The result is a page-turning sales book that reads like a novel. Study the gridiron's greatest salesmen -- and imitate their strategies and tactics -- and become a better marketer regardless of your profession! Integrativ-prozessuales Marketing By Roland Mattm? Are you interested in understanding how PRopaganda plays on the dynamics of public opinion and how we as humans make sense of and derive meaning from the world around us and use this knowledge to determine where you can focus your Marketing and Sales efforts in appealing to your audience to get the desired results?

You might want to know more about the intricacies of the human mind, how it really works and, how we construct our worlds of meaning and, how those meanings affect our experiences and govern our understanding of the world around us and our decision-making processes. We live in the "Attention economy".

Scarcity drives people mad. Attention is no exception and, in the complex and interconnected real-time always-on digital world we live in, this cognitive concept has become scarcer than ever in history. Securing attention is the very first step to induce action. But, what's in between before a decision is made? Blurring the line between virtual and reality, there are a multitude of new highways of thought to approach the public mind. All these means, by which human beings communicate to one another, are instruments to propagate opinions and ideas to influence, persuade, mold and form the will of others.

Success belongs to all those who have a thorough understanding of individuals, masses mental processes and social-connection patterns; how their publics know what they think they know; what really drives their true motives and, as a consequence, are able either to create and provide their publics with robust and authentic Meaning to conquer awareness and channel intent toward a desired outcome. In this book, the author is describing and discussing complex issues in an informal and entertaining tone without erasing their real complexity but simply making reading about them, understanding them, and, most importantly, applying them easier to do.

The ultimate and necessary condition of life purposes is Meaning. Modernes Marketing F? Unter den Schlagworten Web 2. Sie sollen dazu beitragen, die nachlassende Werbewirkung traditioneller Medien zu kompensieren. In vielen Branchen funktioniert dies bereits hervorragend.


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  • Mit diesen neuen Anforderungen befasst sich das Jahrbuch Dienstleistungsmanagement "Electronic Services". Damit liefert das Jahrbuch allen am Dienstleistungsmanagement Interessierten einen hohen Informationsnutzen. Kundenorientierung, -zufriedenheit und -bindung sind bereits wichtige Determinanten des Marketing von Unternehmen. Stern Rules! The Rules of Business with no Baba Bulls!

    The book shows you how to apply Howard's proven business methods to make you, and your business more successful. It doesn't matter whether you love or hate Howard Stern, if you want to improve your business then Stern Rules! Read this book and find out:Why differentiating yourself is a key to financial success and what strategies Howard used to ensure his show was unique. How to build a team that will run through walls for you and do whatever it takes to get the job done. Why creating a culture of brutal honesty is a secret of success that few companies have been able to effectively deploy.

    How to create customers that are die-hard fans who will follow you religiously and can't wait to hear what you say next. Why Howard's approach to syndication of the Stern Show on terrestrial radio can help you to increase your own income or your company's profits.


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    • How to effectively listen to your fans and customers, and ensure that you are constantly providing them with a product they can't wait to get their hands on. Why having fun is a critical component to financial riches and is often responsible for your best and most profitable ideas and products. Das Beziehungsmanagement zwischen den Automobilzulieferern und den Automobilherstellern sog. OEMs gewinnt zunehmend an Bedeutung. Heike Hundertmark analysiert diese in der aktuellen Marktsituation und bewertet sie in Bezug auf den Unternehmenserfolg der Zulieferer.

      Die Autorin zeigt die wichtigsten Erfolgsfaktoren dieser Beziehung auf und quantifiziert sowie beurteilt die nicht direkt messbaren Beziehungseigenschaften. This book is about the new world of marketing using the Internet. Today branding is about community and conversation. This book shows how to use storytelling, social media and email to build and engage a brand community and how to maintain a dialogue with this community.

      In recent years, the Internet has caused us to rethink the traditional rules and principles of branding. Yesterday, a brand was what the company told the world it was. Today, a brand is what the community decides it is. The book cites examples from large well-known corporations, but focuses in particular on the winning practices of small companies without large marketing budgets. It will show you how anyone can combine the use of Internet with the power of storytelling, to build a highly engaged brand community at very low cost.

      He ties together five significant trends in branding and organizational communication highlighting the link between the power of story and organizational success. Sadowsky has emerged as a voice with profound understanding of communication in the 21st century. It is powerful, clear, and insightful. John Sadowsky shows you how to gather your customers around your virtual campfire and share stories about your products and brand. Providing a template for seizing the opportunities offfered by digital business technologies, this book presents six real-life cases to demonstrate both the power and risks involved.

      The authors - both experienced professionals in management education and telecommunications - introduce Total Action concepts and methodologies - where every activity inside the organization is directly relevant for its customers. Winners use these to make front-line people the point of decision making, to unlock information about customers, and to manage the fulfillment of their commitments. The result is a discovery tour of new management concepts that will help your business triumph in todays digital world.